铁血山庄在设计之初就需要解决两个客观现实问题：一是如何在寒冷的气候条件下满足室内生活的保温需求,同时有效节能。 二是如何在满足严苛的保温技术要求下,让建筑继续拥有宜居的人文气质。 通常的别墅会在平面的四周布置房间,于是屋子的中心区域会很难获得采光,而变得昏暗空洞阴冷。当建筑平面体量越大,情况会越严重。给采暖通风带来诸多困难。
因此建筑师因地制宜的利用场地空间,并且根据太阳方位和角度,确定了建筑总体布局, 对窗户的位置和大小做了严密的计算，并在中庭以一个巨大的玻璃方盒子的结构把阳光房植入房屋中心位置,在冬天源源不断提供热量的来源。 同时利用空气流动原理,在夏天把凉爽的空气从地下室引入,从屋面排出, 从而降低室内温度。同时，根据居住者真实的生活习惯，建筑师对室内各个独立空间的大小都做了仔细的考量，所有的空间体量都是适度的，并不一味追求所谓的“大”。
House W Completed: 2017
Design: 2012 – 2015
Construction: 2015 – 2017
Interior design: Atelier About Architecture
Architecture design: Atelier About Architecture
Structure consultant: Liu Su
Lighting consultant: Zhou Hongliang
Energy Efficiency consultant: Wang Jincheng
Façade Consultant: Tang Binfeng
It took three years to complete the design of House W with numerous redesign and adjustments in between. Atelier About Architecture has invested great effort and the process witnessed its own growth. As the owners of the project, the architect duowas playing as both Party A and Party B during design, and the key is to clarify the expectations on living and to solve possible problems with absolute sincerity.
The design of House W was challenged by two physical conditions at the beginning: the temperature at the site is extremely low in winter because the building is rested with its back against the hillside, therefore we need to ensure the heat preservation inside will be strong enough under cold weather while to guaranteeenergyefficiency; it is also a tough job to meet the strict requirements on heat preservation and to create humanistic environment in the building at the same time.In most circumstances, rooms will bearrayed along the four sides of the plan;therefore, the area in the center will barely share any sunlight and becomeinanimate and cold. The situation generally gets worse when the volume turns larger, which will bring more difficulties to the heating and ventilation.
The building is standing with its back against the hillside, allowing the cold air to scouralong the north façade in winter. AAA defined the program of the building as well as the sizes and positions of the windows based on the site and sunlight. The outside walls were wrapped with 150mm insulation panels, plus the huge glass box in the atrium, providing continuous heat in winter. As proved by the experiment on the data collected in the first heating season, the temperature of the interior will reach an average level of 11 degree in winter without turning on any heating equipment. Meanwhile, cool air will be introduced from the basement and discharged from the inside as a result ofnatural airflow to reduce the indoor temperature.
AAA also invited Architecture and Technology Research Institute of Tsinghua University to carry out a half-year professional examination after the realization of House W with the aspirationof building a passive house that completely meets international standards.AAA made careful measurements on each independent room according toour own living habits, and have defined the volume of each space by column width of 6 meters instead of blindly maximizing the space. In this blundering era with excessive visual information, architecture itself has become more and more pictorialized where people are more likely to be attracted by the photos of a building instead of the building itself. However, the real beauty of architecture, as well as the abstraction and the relevance of spaces, are beyond the expression by images. Architecture can only be understood through personal experience.
Martin Heidegger believed that poetic dwelling is not only about poetic watching, but also about living in poetry. The comfort of living is an evitable element in any time.In his article Ornament and Crime (Ornament und Verbrechen),Austrian architect Adolf Loosadvocated for removing ornaments from objects as he saw ornament as fraud. AAA was greatly inspired andtherefore rejected all ornamental elements for visual impact in this project to ultimately present a “sincere”building that truly meets our expectation on living.